The State of Working America 12th Edition

Real income growth for different income percentiles diverged in the 1970s, with real incomes flattening in the 20th percentile and the median, and increasing in the 95th percentile

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Chapter contents

  • The basic contours of American incomes
    • Family and household money income
      This section contains these charts: 2.1 | 2.2 | 2.3 | 2.4
    • Median family income as a metric of economic performance
      This section contains these charts: 2A | 2B
    • A look at income by income fifths
      This section contains these charts: 2C
    • Median family income by race, ethnicity, and nativity
      This section contains these charts: 2.5 | 2D | 2E
  • The Great Recession and American incomes
    • Impact by income group
      This section contains these charts: 2F | 2G | 2H
    • Impact by race and ethnicity
    • Income losses projected for years to come
      This section contains these charts: 2I | 2J
  • Rising inequality of American incomes
    • Family income inequality
      This section contains these charts: 2K | 2L
    • Unequal growth of comprehensive household incomes suggests diverging well-being
      This section contains these charts: 2M
    • Sharp rise in income inequality apparent in every major data source
      This section contains these charts: 2.6 | 2AA | 2AB
    • The limited impact of taxes and transfers relative to market income
      This section contains these charts: 2N | 2O | 2P | 2Q | 2.7 | 2R | 2.8 | 2S
    • Factors behind the large rise in inequality of market incomes
      This section contains these charts: 2T | 2.9 | 2U | 2V | 2.10 | 2.11 | 2.12 | 2W | 2X | 2Y
  • How much did middle-income living standards actually rise between 1979 and 2007?
    • Measuring living standards at the middle
      This section contains these charts: 2Z
    • Sources of income for the middle fifth
      This section contains these charts: 2.13
    • Income growth for the middle fifth has been driven largely by elderly households’ pension and transfer income
    • Adjusting income for the truer contribution of health care transfers
    • Disproportionate growth of transfers directed toward elderly households
      This section contains these charts: 2.14 | 2.15 | 2.16
    • The role of hours worked and educational upgrading in wage growth
      This section contains these charts: 2.17 | 2.18 | 2.19
    • Little of the growth of middle incomes can be attributed to a well-functioning economy

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